PEACE EDUCATION: DEFINITION AND APPROACH.

Ann Arinze

Educator@ Peace Education Development Initiative.

Keywords – Peace Education,Peace, Pacifism, positive peace, negative peace, integration.

Content

  • What is peace?
  • What is peace Education?
  • What is Conflict?
  • Brief history of peace education
  • Objectives of peace education

Introduction

Education for peace hopes to create in the human consciousness a commitment to the ways of peace and management of violent tendencies. Just like a doctor learns in medical school how to minister to the sick, students in peace education classes learn how to solve problem caused by violent. Social violence and warfare can be described as a form of pathology, a disease.Peace education try to inoculate students against evil effects of violence by teaching skills to manage conflicts non-violently and by creating a desire to seek peaceful resolution of conflicts.

Peace Education has taken different shapes around the world. At the beginning of the twentieth century in the United States and Europe people concerned about the advent of mechanized warfare began to educate the population in those countries about ways that wars, structural violence, direct violence and indirect violence could be outlawed. Peace Education started taking place informally throughout history as various cultures pass on to their progeny understandings about the way of peace. Every major religion has a peace message. And today major peace education programmes have been introduced into government owned schools.

What is Peace Education?

Peace Education is a learning process that draws out from people their instincts to live peacefully with others and emphasizes peaceful values upon which society should be based. Educators use their professional skills to tell their students about peace.The study of peace attempts to nourish those energies and impulses that make possible a meaningful and life enhancing existence.

Objectives of Peace Education

  • PEDI Project will help young adults learn by bringing together personal and environmental experiences and help them manage their violent tendencies.
  • PEDI Project will enrich or modify their knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, and behaviour and even world views.
  • PEDI Project will help to achieve a peaceful co-existence with them and among us when peace has been planted in their consciousness.
  • PEDI Project will implant love, planetary stewardship, global citizenship and human relations.
  • PEDI Project will build shared values by networking similarly minded groups.
  • PEDI Project with time will counteract violent images in popular culture and the bellicose behavior of politicians.

Peace has always been among humanity’s highest value.The most popular view is as an absence of dissension, dispute, violence, or war.Pacifism is the opposition to war and violence. The word Pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Emile Arnaud (1864 – 1921) and adopted by the peace activist at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901.

Peace, however, is also seen as concord, harmony and tranquillity. It is viewed as peace of mind or serenity. It is defined as a state of law or civil government, a state of justice or goodness, a balance or equilibrium of Powers.

Such meanings of peace function at different levels. But when peace is opposed, it is called conflict. A state of mind in which a person experiences clash of opposing feelings or needs. It may refer to an internal state (mind) or to external relations (nation). Or it may be narrow in conception, referring to specific relations in a particular situation (like a peace treaty), covering a whole society (as in a world peace). The problem is, of course, that peace derives its meaning and qualities within a theory or framework.

All concepts of peace are defined within a theory or cognitive framework or what Peace Education initiative called perspective. The study of peace and conflict has grown exponentially since their initiation in Scandinavia, Europe about a half century ago by Johan Galtung. They have forged a trans disciplinary and professional identity different from security studies, political science and International Relations.Johan Galtung is widely acknowledged as the founder of peace studies and peace research. He has published extensively in these fields. He is currently the co-director of TRANSCEND, a global network of peace scholars and conflict transformers.

There are two aspects of peace according to Johan Galtung, known as positive and negative peace.The history of the two aspects of peace started in 1950 when peace research was too focused on direct violence like assault, fighting and was dominated by the North Americans. In 1960, Johan Galtung expanded the concepts of peace and violence to include indirect or structural. Peace Education is a research into the conditions for moving closer to peace or atleast not drifting to violence.

Negative peace = absence of violence and war.

Positive peace   = proper integration of all into the society.

Difference between negative and positive peace.

The major characteristics of negative and positive peace can be summarized as follows;

Negative peace: Absence of violence, pessimistic, curative, peace not always by peace means.

Positive peace: Structural integration, optimistic, preventive, peace by peaceful means.

Peace Education Initiative has sought to project positive peace as higher and ideal than negative peace and also the best prevention against violence. Peace shouldn’t deal with narrow vision of ending or reducing violence at a direct or structural level but seek to understand conditions for preventing violence. For this to happen, peace and violence need to be looked at in totality at all levels of human organisation.

Conclusion

The knowledge of negative and positive peace remain the foundation of peace theory and are very valuable when the study of peace is evolving building knowledge about peace to peace training and peace education.



EMERGING VIOLENCE: BUILDING SELF ESTEEM OF NIGERIAN TEENS.

Ann Arinze

Educator@ Peace Education Development Initiative.

Keyword: Emerging violence, Self-esteem, Youth violence, Self-worth,Personal value, Narcissism, homicide.

Content

What is Emerging Violence?

What is Self Esteem?

Introduction

Educators at Peace Education Development Initiative (PEDI) are working hard on the challenges Nigerian teens face as a result of continuous violence in our society. This piece focuses on the rise of all forms of violence (direct, indirect, structural and cultural) and the need to call to battle against them.

Emerging violence refers to the existence and visible behaviour of one involving forces intended to hurtdamage or destroy.Violence is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the intentional use of physical force or power,threatened or actual,against oneself,another person or against a group or community which results in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation.

Violence in many forms can be prevented by addressing underlying factors like concentrated poverty, gender, inequality, harmful use of alcohol and drugs, absence of safe, stable and nurturing relationships. Violent acts can be physical, sexual, and psychological or emotional. Amidst all odds, self-esteem of young adults can be developed above all the listed factors.

Self -esteem

Self-esteem is defined as a person’s positive or negative attitude toward himself or herself. It refers to a person’s overall sense of self-worth or personal value. It involves a variety of beliefs, appearance, emotions and behaviour of a person. Self-esteem is an essential human need that is vital for survival and normal healthy development.It arises automatically from within based upon a person’s belief and consciousness and also occurs in conjunction with a person’s thought, behaviours, feelings and actions. It is an important part of success. Too little self-esteem can leave people feeling defeated or depressed. It can also lead you to make bad choices, fall into destructive relationships or fail to live up to their full potential. Too much self-esteem (Narcissism) can be damaging, so the ideal is to strike a balance somewhere in the middle.

Components of Self-Esteem

According to Braden, 1969, there are three key components of self-esteem

  • Self-esteem is an essential human need that is vital for survival and normal healthy environment.
  • Self-esteem arises automatically from within based upon a person’s belief and consciousness.
  • Self-esteem occurs in connection with a person’s thoughts, behaviours, feelings and actions.

Youth Violence

According to World Health Organization, youth are defined as people between the ages of 10 and 29 years. Youth violence refers to violence occurring between youth and includes act that range from bullying and physical fighting, through more severe sexual and physical assault to homicide.Youth violence normally has a serious, lifelong impact on a person’s psychological and social functioning.Youth violence greatly increases the cost of health, welfare and criminal justice services; reduces productivity, decreases the value of property and generally undermines the fabric of the society.

Peace Education Development Initiative is serving as a prevention programme in reducing youth violence by impacting life skills, attitudes and behaviours to manage anger, resolve conflict, and solve problems, campaign against alcohol. illegal drugs and arms.

Building Self-Esteem of young adults.

  • Love yourself

Self-love is a combination of self-acceptance, self-possession, self-awareness, kindness and respect for ourselves.

  • Read and listen
  • Change your body language

Body language has a great effect on you, carefully observe your body language when you are with others. How you talk, the way you play with your peers and others. You will be able to know what changes are necessary for you to boost your confidence up. Body language passes a powerful message, so you need to be strong enough to your attitude.

  • Meditation

Understand loving kindness meditation and practice it. It will enhance your feelings of kindness for yourself and others.

  • Accept Challenges

Life is full of challenges. If you don’t accept challenge you will not be confident. Face whatever comes your way. Solve problems with your positive thoughts.

  • Don’t be a Perfectionist or avoid perfectionism.
  • Know your fear clearly

If you lack confidence that means you have fear in your mind. Know which things fear you and why you fear those.Dont let fear dominate you. You need to control your fear and finish it forever. You can write down your fears and try to face them gradually.By this way all your fears will run away and you will become confident.

  • Think Positive.

Conclusion

Communities across Nigeria states need to significantly revise the way they think about our teenagerswho are frequently exposedto violence by social institution, that is forming groups of people who come together for the purpose of maintaining social order and governing behaviour and expectations of teenagers and youths .It is expected that our government tries to engage in a variety of policy and pragmatic actions to respond to them. We also need to continue to develop multiple pathways into services and responses to adequately address the needs of our children and teens and help them to grow into emotionally and physically healthy adults.

Acknowledgement

This write up was funded by family, friends and well-wishers of the organization. Please endeavour to call on us if you like our job and want to assist us, financially.



POL ICING IN NIGERIA: PEACE EDUCATION CLASSES TO BE SET UP.

Written by Ann Arinze

Peace Educator @ PEDI Project.

As in the preceding reports concerning the attitude of uniform men towards civilians, which recorded a high level of dehumanization by the force. Based on this same report, the United States have vehemently refused to assist in supplying us arms to fight the notorious insurgent group in Nigeria.

It would not be inappropriate for our government to set up peace education classes for men and women in the force. Just as we view with deep disdain the attachment of videos of their lawless freedom-preferring to scuffle without end rather than to place themselves under lawful restraints that they themselves constitute,consequently preferring a mad freedom to a rational one.Their actions are considered barbarous,rude and brutishly degrading of humanity. One wonders why the word civil right has not been completely buried in their heads.

Police training in this era focused primarily on the technical and mechanicalaspects of acquiring skills, such as marksmanship, driving skills, and defensive tacticswhile neglecting “softer” subjects like communication andproblem solving. Many academies, or police training centres, continue totrain this way today. Recruits spend 90 percent of their training time on firearms,driving, first aid, self-defence and other use-of-force tactics even though only 10 per centof their job duties will put them in positions where they need to use these skills.

We need to adapt a new form of policing; community policing (COPS).

The transition will be difficult given the conflicting values and practices between traditional policing and current policing. For example, whiletraditional policing emphasizes strict enforcement of the law, community policing emphasizesbuilding relationships between police and community/neighbourhood residents in orderto work together to prevent crime and solve problems . The emphasis is on resolving recurring problems rather than intervening insingle incidents.

Other attempt to improve or reform the police relies upon new peace education trainings.

The purpose of community policing training is to provide officers with a level ofunderstanding, improved attitudes and skills that will allow them to effectively employ problem solving andcommunity engagement techniques in their daily work

Furthermore, peace education curricula aim to reflect what is realistically done on the job (i.e. order maintenance and service). Because the recruit academy is such an important part

of occupational socialization for police officers, it is necessary that peace education training classes be set up, to teach the philosophy of COPS during recruit training.

Without proper peace education classes, officers will be less likely to understand the philosophy of COPS and/or howto translate the philosophy into effective practice.

Few researchers have studied academy training and specifically looked at itscoverage of problem solving and community policing, but the ones that haveinvariably reported a lack of sufficient coverage (Bradford and Pynes, 1999; Marion, 1998). For example, Bradford and Pynes (1999) examined syllabi and curricula from 22police academies and concluded that less than 3 percent of basic training academy timeis spent on cognitive and decision-making areas, such as scenarios, communications,reasoning, and application. They found that more than 90 per cent of academy time wasspent on task-oriented training associated with the reactive nature of traditionalpolicing (e.g. defensive tactics, driving, mechanics of arrest).

Importantly, the shift in Nigerian policing toward community relations, problem solving, and

COPS will heighten the need for improved knowledge based and additional skilled force and yet, will not diminish the need for traditional skills. For example, COPS trainingaugments the curriculum by including topics on humandiversity, human right education, special populations (such as the elderly and mentally ill), assessing situations, public speaking, ethics and integrity, proactive or coactive problemsolving, crime prevention, stress management, domestic violence, and community building. The skills necessary for COPS will not become

second-nature if comprehensive training in the theories and methods ofCommunity-oriented policing are not provided. This means that recruits must understand the meanings and values associated with community-oriented policing (e.g.building trust within the neighbourhood) as well as the skills needed to conductCommunity-oriented policing.